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author:Admin    Release date:10/08     Frequency of attention:1213    
Titanium anode is the anode in Ti-based metal oxide coating. According to the different catalytic coatings on the surface, they have the functions of oxygen evolution and chlorine evolution respectively. General electrode materials should have good conductivity, small polar distance change, strong corrosion resistance, good mechanical strength and processing performance, long life, low cost, and good electrocatalytic performance for electrode reaction. Titanium is the most suitable metal to meet the above comprehensive requirements, and industrial pure titanium TA1 TA2 is generally used.
The role of metal oxide coating on titanium anode is: low resistivity, good conductivity (titanium itself is not good), stable chemical composition of noble metal coating, stable crystal structure, stable size of electrode, good corrosion resistance, long life, good electrocatalytic performance, which is conducive to reducing overpotential of oxygen evolution and chlorine evolution reaction and saving electricity.
1. Soluble and insoluble anodes
Soluble anode plays the role of supplementing metal ions and conducting electricity in the electrolysis process, while insoluble anode only plays the role of conducting electricity. The earliest insoluble anodes were graphite and lead anodes. Titanium anodes were used in electrolysis and electroplating industry as a new technology in 1970s. At present, insoluble anodes can be divided into two categories: chlorine evolution anode and oxygen evolution anode. The chlorine evolution anode is mainly used in the chloride electrolyte system. The anode is released by chlorine in the electroplating process, so it is called the chlorine evolution anode. The oxygen evolution anode is mainly used in the electrolyte system, such as sulfate, nitrate and hydrogen cyanide, and oxygen is released from the anode during the electroplating process, so it is called the oxygen evolution anode. The anodic oxygen evolution anode of lead alloy has different oxygen evolution and chlorine evolution functions, or two functions, depending on the surface catalytic coating.
2. Titanium anode for chlor-alkali industry
Compared with graphite electrode, the working voltage of graphite anode for caustic soda production by diaphragm method is 8A/DM2 coated anode, which can be doubled to 17A/DM2. In the same electrolytic environment, the product can be doubled, and the quality of the product is high, and the purity of chlorine is high.
3. Titanium Anode for Electroplating
Soluble anodes for electroplating are coated with noble metal oxide coatings with high electrochemical catalytic performance on titanium substrates (reticulate, plate, strip, tubular, etc.), which contain valve metal oxides with high stability. The new type of insoluble titanium anode has high electrochemical catalytic energy. Oxygen evolution overpotential is about 0.5 V lower than that of lead alloy insoluble anode. It has remarkable energy saving, high stability, no pollution to plating solution, light weight and easy to replace. The oxygen evolution overpotential of the new insoluble titanium anode is also lower than that of the platinum-plated insoluble anode, but the service life of the new type of insoluble titanium anode is increased by more than one time. Widely used in various electroplating as anode or auxiliary anode, it can replace conventional lead based alloy anode. Under the same conditions, it can reduce groove voltage and save energy consumption. Insoluble titanium anode has good stability (chemical and electrochemical) in electroplating process, and has long service life. This anode is widely used in nickel-plating, gold-plating, chromium-plating, zinc-plating, copper-plating and other non-ferrous metal plating industries.
4. lead and lead alloy anode
Lead alloy anodes belong to oxygen evolution anode. The electrolyte for oxygen evolution reaction is sulfuric acid and sulphate, which is mainly used for electrolytic metallurgy. This kind of anode has the defect that the geometric size will change during the electrolysis process. In the electrolysis process, the lead anode matrix is first converted to lead sulfate, and then to lead oxide. Lead sulfate is an intermediate layer. It is an insulator and acts as a chemical barrier layer. It can protect the inner lead matrix in sulfuric acid environment. Lead oxide in the outer layer is a practical electrode. The oxygen evolution reaction takes place on the outer surface. The oxygen evolution potential of lead oxide is very high, and it rises rapidly with the increase of the current density. The characteristics of lead alloy anode are determined by the inherent characteristics of lead oxide in the outer layer of lead oxide, which is the poor conductor of electricity. In addition, during electrolysis, the electrochemical performance of lead oxide anode structure decreases continuously, and the generation of internal stress causes oxide layer by layer to fall off. In addition, the formation of lead peroxide also causes oxide to dissolve continuously. Lead sulfate, as an intermediate layer, is transformed into lead oxide again, which becomes a new active material for outer oxide electrocatalysis, and the inner lead matrix is oxidized. A new intermediate protective layer of lead sulfate was formed. Therefore, in the process of electrolysis, lead and its alloying elements continuously dissolve into the electrolyte and precipitate, resulting in solution pollution (chemical precipitation in solution) and cathode product pollution (pollutant electrodeposition on cathode surface, electrolysis to copper purity can not be well guaranteed).
5. Coated Titanium Anode
Coated titanium anode, commonly known as DSA (Dimensionally Stable Anode size stable anode), also known as DSE (Dimensionally Stable Electrode), is a new type of insoluble anode material developed in the late 1960s. DSA coated titanium anodes are mainly used in electrochemistry and electrometallurgy.
The application fields of DSA coated titanium anode include chlor-alkali industry, chlorate production, hypochlorite production, perchlorate production, persulfate electrolysis, electrolytic organic synthesis, electrolytic extraction of non-ferrous metals, silver electrolysis catalyst production, electrolytic production of copper foil, electrolytic oxidation recovery of mercury, water electrolysis, chlorine dioxide production, hospital sewage treatment, cyanide-containing wastewater treatment of electroplating plant. Disinfection of domestic water and food appliances, treatment of cooling circulating water in power plants, treatment of dyeing and finishing wastewater in wool textile mills, treatment of industrial water and electrolysis to produce acid-base ionic water, zinc plating, rhodium plating, palladium plating, gold plating, lead plating, desalination of seawater by electrodialysis, preparation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, molten salt electrolysis, battery production, cathodic protection and production of negative foil Anodic oxidation of aluminium foil, etc. 

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